English – Muslims in the West 2002

Summary table of contents 7
General Observations 9
Preface by the publisher 11
Foreword by Guy Hennebelle 15
Introduction 18
Part I. The Muslim view of minorities 21
Chapter I. Division inside the land of Islam 21
1) Muslims 21
2) People of the Book 25
3) Apostates 29
4) Polytheists 29
5) Particular status of Arabia 30
Chapter II. Land of Islam & Land of Disbelief 30
1) Classic religious border 30
2) Classic religious border and migration 32
3) Present religious border 38
4) Religious border and present migration 42
5) Naturalization of the Muslim 60
6) Migration: integration or disintegration 65
Part II. Minorities in Switzerland 69
Chapter I. Minorities in general 69
Chapter II. Linguistic and ethnic minorities 72
Chapter III. Religious minorities 73
Chapter IV. Minorities, the individual and the State 77
Part III. Muslims in Switzerland 79
Chapter I. Recognition of Islam 79
1) Recognition by the public 79
2) Recognition by authorities 81
3) Recognition of Switzerland by Muslims 87
Chapter II. Freedom of religion and worship 95
1) Freedom to adhere 95
A) Islamic norms 95
B) Swiss norms 97
2) Religious brands 99
A) Islamic norms 99
B) Swiss norms 100
3) Freedom of opinion 102
A) Islamic norms 102
B) Swiss norms 104
4) Holidays, prayers and fasting of Ramadan 110
A) Islamic norms 110
B) Swiss norms 112
5) Mosques and religious personnel 117
A) Islamic norms 117
B) Swiss norms 118
Chapter III. School and religion 122
1) Religious education 123
A) Islamic norms 123
B) Swiss norms 125
2) Distinctive religious signs in the school 130
A) Islamic norms 131
B) Swiss norms 133
3) Co-education 143
A) Islamic norms 143
B) Swiss norms 144
4) Content of courses 149
A) Islamic norms 149
B) Swiss norms 151
5) Schools for the Muslims 152
A) Islamic norms 152
B) Swiss norms 152
Chapter IV. Family law 155
1) Passage from the religious to the civil norms 156
A) Islamic norms 156
B) Swiss norms 157
2) Celebration of the marriage 158
A) Islamic norms 158
B) Swiss norms 158
3) Religious obstacle to the marriage 160
A) Islamic norms 160
B) Swiss norms 161
4) Temporary or enjoyment marriage 165
A) Islamic norms 165
B) Swiss norms 166
5) Polygamy 167
A) Islamic norms 167
B) Swiss norms 167
6) Dissolution of the marriage 170
A) Islamic norms 170
B) Swiss norms 171
7) Authority of the husband on his wife 176
A) Islamic norms 176
B) Swiss norms 177
8) Relations between parents and children 178
A) Islamic norms 178
B) Swiss norms 180
9) Matrimonial regime and economic relations 185
A) Islamic norms 185
B) Swiss norms 186
10) Inheritance law 187
A) Islamic norms 187
B) Swiss norms 188
Chapter V. Food prohibitions 190
1) Religious norms 190
A) Jewish Norms 190
a) Prohibited Foods 190
b) Justification of the prohibitions 193
c) Respect of the prohibitions 194
B) Christian Norms 195
a) Abolition of the prohibitions 195
b) Maintenance of the prohibitions by some groups 196
C) Islamic norms 197
a) The prohibitions in the Koran 198
b) Widening of the prohibitions by jurists 201
c) Justification of the prohibitions 205
d) Respect of the prohibitions 209
e) Comparison of Jewish and Muslim prohibitions 211
2) Swiss norms 211
A) Ritual slaughter 212
a) Swiss norms on ritual slaughter 212
b) Ritual Slaughter and religious freedom 218
c) Others’ freedom 222
d) Ritual slaughter and accusation of racism 223
e) Ritual slaughter and suffering of animals 225
f) Economic considerations 228
B) Collective restoration 229
a) Public schools and universities 229
b) Army 230
c) Hospital 231
d) Jail 231
C) Availability and control of foods 232
D) Social sanction 233
Chapter VI. religious cemeteries 236
1) Separation of tombs 237
A) Islamic norms 237
B) Swiss norms 239
Geneva 241
Bern 242
Basel-city 243
Zurich 244
2) Direction of the tomb 245
A) Islamic norms 245
B) Swiss norms 246
3) Shroud, coffin and tomb 247
A) Islamic norms 247
B) Swiss norms 249
4) Time of the funeral 250
A) Islamic norms 250
B) Swiss norms 251
5) Permanence of tombs 251
A) Islamic norms 252
B) Swiss norms 253
6) Cremation 254
A) Islamic norms 254
B) Swiss norms 257
Conclusion 261
1) Shared responsibility 261
2) Muslim migratory fluxes 265
3) Role of philosophers 267
Appendices 270
Appendix 1. Barbarism is the fruit of the injustice 270
Appendix 2. United States and justice 271
Appendix 3. No justice, no peace 273
Appendix 4. Model of contract for mixed marriage 282
Bibliography 287
Detailed table of contents 305
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